The network has converged when all routers have complete and accurate information about the entire network, as shown in Figure 1. Convergence time is the time it takes routers to share information, calculate best paths, and update their routing tables. A network is not completely operable until the network has converged; therefore, most networks require short convergence times.

Convergence is both collaborative and independent. The routers share information with each other, but must independently calculate the impacts of the topology change on their own routes. Because they develop an agreement with the new topology independently, they are said to converge on this consensus.

Convergence properties include the speed of propagation of routing information and the calculation of optimal paths. The speed of propagation refers to the amount of time it takes for routers within the network to forward routing information.

As shown in Figure 2, routing protocols can be rated based on the speed to convergence; the faster the convergence, the better the routing protocol. Generally, older protocols, such as RIP, are slow to converge, whereas modern protocols, such as EIGRP and OSPF, converge more quickly.