All routing protocols are designed to learn about remote networks and to quickly adapt whenever there is a change in the topology. The method that a routing protocol uses to accomplish this depends upon the algorithm it uses and the operational characteristics of that protocol.
In general, the operations of a dynamic routing protocol can be described as follows:
1. The router sends and receives routing messages on its interfaces.
2. The router shares routing messages and routing information with other routers that are using the same routing protocol.
3. Routers exchange routing information to learn about remote networks.
4. When a router detects a topology change the routing protocol can advertise this change to other routers.
Click Play in the figure to view an animation of dynamic routing protocols in operation.